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Annual Summit on Material, Polymer Science and Engineering, will be organized around the theme ““Recent Advancement of Material, Polymer Science and Engineering””
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Polymers are multifaceted materials. This feature of polymer facilitates the people to manipulate the properties and behavior of the polymers according the requirement in the application area. This makes possible to provide a way to made polymer as a part in many trending inventions in medical, scientific, bio medical and electronics fields. In all such fields scientist have been combine the molecules of the polymers with other functional substances and produce a new featured polymer with desired features and properties.
Many monomers are merged together to form a Polymer. Polymer is a combination of repeated long chain units of monomers. Most of the monomers are alkenes with double bond which react in addition to their unsaturated double bonds. To bond two monomer molecules the double bond electrons are used. Once a Polymer is formed all the double bonds are converted a single bonds. Polymers are many types such as linear chain polymers, lightly branched polymers, combed polymers and star polymers.
Polymers synthesis determines the molecular structure and it will help us to avoid side reactions and achieve a worthy product. Polymerization polymers can be of many types. First one is the Chain growth polymerization and second is Step growth polymerization. In chain growth, polymerization is activated by the activation of neighboring monomers of a monomer. High molecular weight polymers are obtained quickly with a rapid process of chain growth polymerization. On the other hand, in step growth polymerization, bi functional monomers are combined in a systematic approach to build covalent bonds. In this process molecular weight increases slowly and in step wise.
On the other hand, biodegradable Biopolymers can be digested in aerobic condition to produce home compost or industrial compost. In aerobic degradation process, biochemical in the soil helps us to convert the polymers as compost. Biopolymers digested in anaerobic state can be used as biogas. In the way of anaerobic bio-degradation of polymers chemical recycling is applied. Basic process in chemical recycling is done by selective dissolution from the mixed streams of waste. And chemical recycling can also use the de-polymerization to recycle the biopolymers. In Chemical recycling Biopolymers went through the many phases in which recycling is performed together with fossil-based counterpart.
Biopolymers and Bio plastics are produced by the natural substances. Microorganism produces Bio plastics from the used plastic containers and agricultural by products. On the other hand common fossil-fuel plastics are derived from the natural resources like petroleum and natural gas. In the process of Bio plastic production, polymers are used which are obtained from the natural organism. The molecules primarily known as monomeric modules are exist in the Bio polymers to produce large structures. According to monomeric molecule structure used, Biopolymer can be categorized into three main classes. The classes are: poly nucleotides, Poly peptides and Polysaccharides. Rubber and Cellulose is the most common compound and biopolymer on the Earth.
Another interesting field related to polymers is Polymers Design and Reaction. In this field we are using many designs to understand the reactions of the polymers. Generally polymers tend to viscous. It often imposes lower limits on their concentrations in diluents. In order to observe such reactions we must have design. Reaction system design can be made by considering various factors like product sequence, reactor configuration, reactor conditions, heat removal, fluid mechanics, mass-transfer limitations, thermo dynamics constraints, process dynamics and reactor stability.
A polymer is an expansive particle, or macromolecule, made out of many rehashed subunits. Because of their expansive scope of properties, both manufactured and common polymers assume fundamental and pervasive jobs in regular day to day existence. Polymers run from well-known manufactured plastics, for example, polystyrene to common biopolymers, for example, DNA and proteins that are central to organic structure and capacity.
Colloid is a solution in which a tiny dispersed insoluble or soluble particle are suspended throughout another substance. Colloid has two phases dispersed and continuous phase that arise by phase separation. If the mixture does not settle or take very long time to settle it is considered as qualified colloid. Polymer Science is inherited from the field in which new materials such as solids are designed and discovered. As like that, solid synthetic polymers elastomers and plastics are considered as primary materials to be ascertaining in the field of Polymer Science.
Materials Science and Engineering is an acclaimed scientific discipline, expanding in recent decades to surround polymers, ceramics, glass, composite materials and biomaterials. Materials science and engineering, involves the discovery and design of new materials. Many of the most pressing scientific problems humans currently face are due to the limitations of the materials that are available and, as a result, major breakthroughs in materials science are likely to affect the future of technology significantly. Materials scientists lay stress on understanding how the history of a material influences its structure, and thus its properties and performance. All engineered products from airplanes to musical instruments, alternative energy sources related to ecologically-friendly manufacturing processes, medical devices to artificial tissues, computer chips to data storage devices and many more are made from materials. In fact, all new and altered materials are often at the heart of product innovation in highly diverse applications.
Now a day, 3D printer gives the possibility to the human to create anything virtually by taking any raw material from metal and ceramic to sugar. Earliest days of 3D printing is limited to produce the product with plastic and it provides possibility to use any kind of material in the 3D printing. Mostly used plastics in the 3D printing are Poly lactic acid (PLA), Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and Polyvinyl Alcohol Plastic (PVA). These three kinds of plastics stimulate the evolution of 3D printing. In addition to these plastics on the other hand we can use the various types of plastics like Polyethylene terephthalate (PET), Polycarbonate, Carbon fiber.
Polymers can be very resistant to chemicals, Generally, polymers are very light in weight with significant degrees of strength, Polymers are materials with a seemingly limitless range of characteristics and colors, Polymers can be both thermal and electrical insulators, Polymers can be processed in various ways, etc.
In the petroleum industry Polymerization is the process of transforming light olefin gases into hydrocarbons of higher molecular weight and higher octane number. The olefin gases consist of ethylene, propylene and butylenes. Polymerization in petroleum refinery combines two or more identical olefin gases molecules to form a single molecule with same proportions of the substances as in the original. This polymerization is done in the presence of catalyst and accomplished thermally at lower temperatures.
Polymeric physics deals with physical modeling of polymers. Polymeric material chemistry facilitates the chemical synthesis which allows the designing and study of new materials. The synthesis is performed with useful physical characteristics like magnetic, optical, catalytic and structural properties.
Green Polymers is an innovative technology to replace traditional materials with the eco-friendly substances. Polystyrene-Aluminum Chloride: It is used to prepare Ethers from alcohols. Polystyrene AlCl3 is a useful catalyst for synthetic reactions which require both a dehydrating agent and a Lewis acid. Thus, acetyls are obtained in good yield by the reaction of aldehyde, alcohol and polymeric AlCl3 in an organic inert solvent. Polymeric super acid catalysts: These polymeric super acid catalysts are obtained by aluminum to Sulfonate Polystyrene.